|Glaucoma damages the optic nerve, the nerve of sight, causing blind spots in areas of vision. People rarely notice these blind areas in the side vision until considerable optic nerve damage has occurred or the blind areas are very large in late onset. Usually people notice this damage when visual field is narrowed.
an aqueous humor-a clear transparent liquid- flows through
the inner eye continuously. If the drainpipe is blocked,
the fluid pressure within the inner eye is increased and
leads to damage to the optic nerve. Hence, the field of
vision is also damaged and becomes narrow.
There are 4 forms of glaucoma
1. Chronic open-angle glaucoma
This type accounts for the majority of glaucoma in most
countries. It affects mainly the elderly but can also
affect the middle-aged. Members of the family or relatives
of people with glaucoma have a higher risk of having the
disease as there is usually a hereditary factor involved.
Glaucoma progresses slowly and often goes unnoticed for
many months or years. Many people are unaware that their
eyesight is deteriorating as a person's straight ahead
vision and reading vision remains good initially, but
there is a gradual loss of night vision and side vision.
The best way to diagnose is by means of a medical eye
2. Acute angle-closure glaucoma
The iris may press up against the drainage area and close
it off. This action increases eye pressure rapidly and
leads to complete blockage of fluid flowing out of the
eye. If not treated immediately, it can result in permanent
damage to the eye in a few days. Acute glaucoma often
has very marked symptoms such as severe pain in the eye,
blurred vision, redness, the appearance of haloes around
lights, and vomiting.
3. Congenital glaucoma
This type of defect is abnormal from birth. Since an infant's
eye has more elasticity than an adult's, when pressure
inside the eye is increased, the simply stretchable eye
may enlarge. Hence, the front of the eye is blur like
fog on a windshield.
4. Secondary glaucoma
Other conditions such as injuries, certain drugs, hemorrhages,
tumors, and inflammations can sometimes block outflow
channels in the eye.
A history of glaucoma in
the family, diabetes, hardening of the arteries, or anemia
is the example of risk factors.
The earlier the condition is diagnosed, the greater the
chances of success in preventing vision loss. Although
glaucoma cannot be cured, in most cases it can be successfully
controlled. The type of therapy depends on the form of
glaucoma and may be administered by medication-eye drops,
tablets-, surgery or laser therapy.