The retina is the nerve cell layer of the eye. When light enters the eye, it passes through the cornea and lens and is focused onto the retina.

Retinal detachment is the retina separating from the outer layers of the eye, thereby losing of vision.
Causes
The vitreous-which is a gel fluid attached to the retina around the back wall of the eye- shrinks, and then it pulls a piece of the retina resulting in hole in the retina. Fluid passes through these openings and separates the retina from the adjacent layers of the eye.


Cataract surgery, severe inflammations, or injury may also cause the vitreous to shrink. Holes or tears of the retina may result from thinning of the retina caused by nearsightedness. Furthermore, strong nearsighted people and a positive family history of retinal detachment are the other risk factors.
Symptoms
Some retinal detachments may begin without notice until a large segment of the retina is separated. Patients may notice wavy vision in their overall vision. Additionally, the part of the retina that is detached will not work properly and there will be blur or a blind spot in vision.
A few detachment may occur suddenly, thereby resulting in a total loss of vision. Similar rapid loss of vision may also be caused by bleeding into the vitreous area of the eye which may happen when the retina is torn.

Treatment
There are several surgical procedures of retinal detachment.

1. Laser Photocoagulation
When new small retinal tears are found with little, the tears are sometimes sealed with a laser light. The laser places small burns around the edge of the tears and produces scars to prevent fluid from passing through and collecting under the retina. Laser procedure is usually an outpatient surgery.

2. Freezing or Cryopexy
Freezing will also stimulate scar formation and seal down the edges. Freezing is often an outpatient procedure but requires local anesthesia to numb the eye.

3. Surgical Repair
Such operations vary depending on the extent of the detachment and resulting damage. Some patients require air/gas injection and they have to maintain fixed head positions as much as possible for several days after the operation. In more complex cases, it may be necessary to use a technique called vitrectomy. This surgery cuts the connected bands of vitreous away from the retina and removes the shrunken vitreous body from the edge. Generally, eye drops and ointments are the only medications required after discharge. Irregularly, glasses or contact lens may be prescribed if vision needs correction.
Moreover, there are the combining surgery procedures used to treat retinal detachment. It combines between vitrectomy, subretinal fluid drainage, and gas injection called fluid gas exchange. Many cases may need scleral buckle procedure combined with endolaser or cryopexy to stimulate attachment of the retina. Irregularly, glasses or contact lens may be prescribed if vision needs correction.

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